These are all the occurrences found in the years from -5200 to 4200, of double or triple conjunctions of Mars with Regulus or Spica, with one or more total lunar eclipses in month 7 and/or month 1 occurring in the same year, or in the preceding or following year. The years used are fall to fall years beginning at month 7, just as are used for Sabbatical and Jubilee years. This provides consistency with the Mars conjunctions, resulting in most or possibly all occurrences of a double or triple falling within the same year. A range of -1 to +3 has been used to limit the data to only those cases in which the Mars conjunctions were accompanied by eclipses in the same year or in the preceding or following year. “-1” means that the closest eclipse was in month 7 of the previous year, thus not preceding the Mars conjunctions by more than a year. “+3” means that the closest eclipse was in month 1 of the following year, thus not following the Mars conjunctions by more than a year.

## Overall structure of the data, part 1

In examining the data it was found that every occurrence fits the overall pattern outlined in the chart by the wide blue lines. See the first series, Mars/Regulus Series 1, as an example of the general pattern. There’s usually more than one list shown for each series, with a separation of either 568 or 521 years from one occurrence to the next in any one of the lists. The number of years between one occurrence and the next is shown by the vertical list of numbers along the blue border of the chart. Then when we browse horizontally from one list to the next, we find a separation of just 47 years from one occurrence to the next. We often find two or three occurrences in a row separated by 47 years each, and this is reflected by these multiple lists, with each list being shifted 47 years forward in time from the previous list. In a few cases we even get four occurrences in a row separated by just 47 years. This occurs in the first four rows of the four lists in Mars/Regulus series 2. The 47-year gap between one list and the next is reflected in the blue border of the chart by the “+47” at the top of each column of 568’s and 521’s.

## The content of the data

The data in each list, within each of the blue outlines, is made up of several columns. The first column is the year – the Gregorian or Julian year of the Hebrew New Year beginning the fall-to-fall year in which the Mars conjunctions occur. This follows the astronomical convention of using Gregorian years for the Gregorian period beginning in 1582, Julian years for dates prior to that, and using negative numbers for BC dates, in which the year -3513 represents 3514 BC, the year -310 represents 311 BC, etc.

The next four columns are calculated values to keep track of the Sabbatical year and Jubilee cycles, showing 1) the number of completed Jubilee cycles since the creation of Adam, taking the year -4003 as the best candidate for this date, based on other studies which are still in process, 2) which year of the current Jubilee cycle this date falls in, 3) the number of completed Sabbatical cycles since the completion of the last Jubilee cycle, and 4) which year of the current Sabbatical cycle this date falls in.

After this are 5-8 columns showing the nature of the eclipses and their relative timing with respect to the Mars conjunctions. A red M3 (pink M2) represents a triple (double) conjunction of Mars, occurring in the year marked by the first column. The brown 1’s and 7’s preceding or following this represent total eclipses in month 1 and month 7. The 7 and 1 immediately following M2 or M3 represent eclipses in the same year. A 7 and 1 following that represents eclipses in the following year. A 7 and 1 preceding M2 or M3 represents eclipses in the preceding year.

When 1’s and 7’s are seen in parentheses with no colored highlighting, these represent partial or penumbral eclipses, which though recorded here, don’t count as a part of the pattern we’re actually looking for. The 6’s, 8’s, 9’s, 13’s and 2’s with no colored highlighting represent total eclipses, but which are not being counted as part of the pattern because they aren’t aligned with the Hebrew feast months. And these same numbers in parentheses represent partial or penumbral eclipses in the indicated months. In some cases “–” has been used as just a place holder for a half year in which there are not yet any total eclipses.

So this is now enough information to evaluate whether a given occurrence matches the pattern we’re looking for, and the next (final) column indicates the result of this evaluation. A “0” in this column indicates that there’s a month 1 or 7 total eclipse right next to M2 or M3, with no white space. A -1 indicates a white space before, preceded by the month 7 total eclipse at the beginning of the preceding year. A +1 indicates a white space after, followed by a month 1 total eclipse in the same year as the Mars conjunctions. A +2 indicates two white spaces after, followed by a month 7 total eclipse beginning the year following the Mars conjunctions. A +3 indicates three white spaces after, followed by a month 1 total eclipse in the year following the Mars conjunctions.

## Overall structure of the data, part 2 – Jubilee alignment

So that’s how to read the data in the lists that are outlined by the wide blue lines. Now looking again at the overall pattern of the data – at the columns of 568’s and 521’s along the blue borders of the chart, we see that generally there are three or four 568’s for every one 521. When this number is right at four, we find a surprising correlation with the Jubilee cycles. Since (4 x 568) + 521 = 2793 = 57 x 49, or 57 Jubilees, we find that a given occurrence will often end up at exactly the same point in its current Jubilee cycle as the occurrence which follows 5 periods later (and 57 Jubilees later) in the same list. When this doesn’t happen, because there was more than one 521 in the list of 5 occurrences, the endpoint will be off by two years. In many cases we can still find an endpoint exactly 57 Jubilees from the starting point if we then look to the next list, since adding 47 has the same effect as turning one of the 521’s into 568.

Note that this chart implements a break during the Babylonian exile in the counting of years for Sabbatical and Jubilee purposes. The length of the break used by default was originally set to the 12 or 61 years proposed as best fit by the analysis of Restoring the Timetable of Sabbath and Jubilee Years – but this has been superseded by more recent studies which identify 40 years as the best candidate for the actual length of the break. The chart implements the break in a way that also allows experimentation with other theories – and to help us fully understand how the Lunar Eclipse/Mars correlations align with Jubilees, it will be useful at this point to set the break to zero and see how all the alignments would look if there had been no break in the counting.

To do this, all we need to do is adjust a parameter in the very top row of the chart. In the 3rd and 4th cells of the top row are the two numbers “0” and “40”. The first number controls the starting point of the alignment, with “0” giving us as a default the alignment that’s known to be historically correct for pre-exile Jubilees. We can leave this one alone. The second number controls the length of the break, so to see how things align if there’s no break at all, we can just set this to zero. The datapoints with light yellow numbers in the second column will be unaffected by this, because these are pre-exile datapoints. The datapoints with light green numbers in the second column are the post-exile datapoints, so taking out the break will change all of these.

Now, it’s interesting to notice that many of the series’ don’t continue across the boundary between pre-exile and post-exile. Two series’ are pre-exile only, and five are post-exile only. For Mars/Regulus, only series’ 2 and 3 cross that break, and for Mars/Spica it’s only series 2. When we set the length of the break to zero, we can see for these cases that the Jubilee alignment continues pretty steadily across the break from pre-exile to post-exile.

There are still more details to discuss, with the next topic being the horizontal alignment of each series… But before digging into more details, here’s the actual data that we’ll be looking at:

## Horizontal alignment of each series

You’ll notice that not every series begins at the left margin. As we look closely at these Jubilee alignments, it becomes clear that in addition to finding a 57-Jubilee alignment every 5th datapoint in the lists within a series, there are also Jubilee links from one series to the next. Some examples of this:

- Mars/Regulus series 1, -1792, to Mars/Regulus series 2, -861 – both at year 7 of the Jubilee cycle, 19 Jubilees apart
- Mars/Regulus series 2, -1903, to Mars/Regulus series 3, -972 – both at year 43 of the Jubilee cycle, 19 Jubilees apart
- Mars/Regulus series 3 to Mars/Regulus series 4 – no linkages found
- Mars/Regulus series 4, 1473, to Mars/Regulus series 5, 2404 – both at year 47 of the Jubilee cycle (38 if no break), 19 Jubilees apart

- Mars/Spica series 1, -2247, to Mars/Spica series 2, -1316 – both at year 42 of the Jubilee cycle, 19 Jubilees apart
- Mars/Spica series 2 to Mars/Spica series 3 – no linkages found
- Mars/Spica series 3, 3260, to Mars/Spica series 4, 4191 – both at year 21 of the Jubilee cycle (12 if no break), 19 Jubilees apart
- Mars/Spica series 4, 3149, to Mars/Spica series 5, 4080 – both at year 8 of the Jubilee cycle (48 if no break), 19 Jubilees apart

So we have 19-Jubilee alignments as well as 3 x 19 = 57-Jubilee alignments. The horizontal alignments between one series and the next have been adjusted to make these matching pairs easy to identify, by placing them in the same column as much as possible. Setting the break length again to zero and browsing the charts, we can find a number of these series-to-series links. Sometimes these links are offset by one column from being in exactly the same column, just as we’ve seen when browsing within a series, and probably for the same reason, because the 568/521 sequences aren’t always exactly a 4/1 ratio.

Notice that this search hasn’t suggested any particular horizontal alignment between Mars/Regulus series’ 3 & 4, or between Mars/Spica series’ 2 & 3. These are both cases where the first series crosses the break, and the second series is post-exile only. But looking more carefully at these two cases – at Mars/Regulus series 3 & 4 and Mars/Spica 2 & 3 – we find that their Jubilee linkage has been hidden by a 1-year shift. What we expected to find in year 10 is now in year 11, 12 now in 13, 39 now in 40, 41 now in 42, 19 now in 20, 21 now in 22, etc. This is with the break still set to zero – so what we’re seeing is not a function of our Jubilee interpretation, but something about the astronomical alignments themselves. This shift seems to be related to the observation that Mars/Regulus 3 to 4 and Mars/Spica 2 to 3 is the point at which the alignment between the lunar eclipses and Mars wraps around, so that the eclipses are now following rather than preceding the Mars conjunctions. So between Mars/Regulus series’ 3 & 4 and Mars/Spica series’ 2 & 3, the horizontal alignment highlights this +1 Jubilee linkage.

Now, having initially seen a 12/61 year break in counting of years at the Babylonian exile as the best fit… and now based on further study seeing a 40-year break as the better fit – I now wonder if this Jubilee linkage between adjacent series’ of these correlations of Mars with lunar eclipses can always just be creatively manipulated to achieve a desired answer – or if perhaps it can provide us with evidence of which alignment between pre-exile and post-exile Jubilees is most likely to actually have been intended by the designer of these things. There are 49 possible alignments. Suppose we look at each one, and see which one provides the strongest Jubilee linkages. To evaluate the strength of linkage, we can just look at Mars/Regulus 2, Mars/Regulus 3, and Mars/Spica 2 – the 3 series’ which include both pre-exile and post-exile datapoints. The following chart is an accounting, for each of the 49 possible alignments, of how many of the 5 spans of the pattern are able to link across the gap to the same point in the Jubilee cycle:

- 45 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a +4 year match
- 46 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a +3 year match
- 47 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a +2 year match
- 48 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a +1 year match
- 49 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a perfect match – no gap
- 1 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a -1 year match
- 2 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a -2 year match
- 3 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a -3 year match
- 4 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a -4 year match
- 5
**. . .** - 6 after 2 or 7 spans, 3 of 5 get a +3 year match
- 7 after 2 or 7 spans, 3 of 5 get a +2 year match
- 8 after 2 or 7 spans, 3 of 5 get a +1 year match
- 9 after 2 or 7 spans, 3 of 5 get a perfect match – 9-year gap
- 10 after 2 or 7 spans, 3 of 5 get a -1 year match
- 11 after 2 or 7 spans, 3 of 5 get a -2 year match
- 12 after 2 or 7 spans, 3 of 5 get a -3 year match
- 13 after 2 or 7 spans, 3 of 5 get a -4 year match
- 14
**. . .** - 15
**. . .** - 16 after 4 spans, 4 of 5 get a +4 year match
- 17 after 4 spans, 4 of 5 get a +3 year match
- 18 after 4 spans, 4 of 5 get a +2 year match
- 19 after 4 spans, 4 of 5 get a +1 year match
- 20 after 4 spans, 4 of 5 get a perfect match – 20-year gap
- 21 after 4 spans, 4 of 5 get a -1 year match
- 22 after 4 spans, 4 of 5 get a -2 year match
- 23 after 4 spans, 4 of 5 get a -3 year match
- 24
**. . .** - 25
**. . .** - 26 after 6 spans, 4 of 5 get a +3 year match
- 27 after 6 spans, 4 of 5 get a +2 year match
- 28 after 6 spans, 4 of 5 get a +1 year match
- 29 after 6 spans, 4 of 5 get a perfect match – 29-year gap
- 30 after 6 spans, 4 of 5 get a -1 year match
- 31 after 6 spans, 4 of 5 get a -2 year match
- 32 after 6 spans, 4 of 5 get a -3 year match
- 33 after 6 spans, 4 of 5 get a -4 year match
- 34
**. . .** - 35 after 3 or 8 spans, 3 of 5 get a +5 year match
- 36 after 3 or 8 spans, 3 of 5 get a +4 year match
- 37 after 3 or 8 spans, 3 of 5 get a +3 year match
- 38 after 3 or 8 spans, 3 of 5 get a +2 year match
- 39 after 3 or 8 spans, 3 of 5 get a +1 year match
- 40 after 3 or 8 spans, 3 of 5 get a perfect match – 40-year gap
- 41 after 3 or 8 spans, 3 of 5 get a -1 year match
- 42 after 3 or 8 spans, 3 of 5 get a -2 year match
- 43 after 3 or 8 spans, 3 of 5 get a -3 year match
- 44
**. . .** - 45 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a +4 year match
- 46 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a +3 year match
- 47 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a +2 year match
- 48 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a +1 year match
- 49 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a perfect match – no gap
- 1 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a -1 year match
- 2 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a -2 year match
- 3 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a -3 year match
- 4 after 5 spans, 5 of 5 get a -4 year match

This shows that 5 of the 49 possible alignments show a good degree of linkage across the gap, with of course no gap at all having the best possible alignment. The years showing just “. . .” in place of any data, are edge cases – transitional years in which the numbers vary depending on which side’s perspective is being considered. Being the furthest points from any clear linkage, there’s really no need to sort out these details and record any interpretations for these. The following 5 gap lengths are the ones showing the best linkage across the gap:

- 0-year gap
- 9-year gap
- 20-year gap
- 29-year gap
- 40-year gap

Interestingly, this offers us one more perspective on how to think of the 49 years of a Jubilee cycle – that 9 + 11 + 9 + 11 + 9 = 49 exactly. This is one of the reasons that we’re able to see such stability with respect to the Jubilee cycles of the correlations of Mars with lunar eclipses, even when the gap in counting at the Babylonian exile is taken into account.

So the 40-year gap proposed by other studies is confirmed as being a gap length that can be accommodated by the patterns of correlation of Mars with lunar eclipses. This isn’t *proof* of 40 years being the correct gap length. But it’s a piece of evidence which fits well with this interpretation.

So, you may ask, shouldn’t the gap be 70 years? Isn’t that what Scripture says?

That’s a good question to think on. The Lord did tell the people of Israel through Jeremiah that they would be exiled to Babylon for 70 years. And there are several starting and ending points that these 70 years can be related to. There was the destruction of the Temple the summer of 587 BC, and the completion of its reconstruction a little over 70 years later in 515 BC. There was the first exile to Babylon of some of the leaders of Israel including Daniel, probably soon after the battle of Carchemish in spring or summer of 605 BC (from Jack Finegan’s 1998 Handbook of Biblical Chronology, page 252, paragraph 431). 70 years after this date would be 535 BC. And then the second exile, including Ezekiel and the newly-crowned King Jehoiachin in March of 597 BC (again from Finegan 1998, page 256, paragraph 437). 70 years after this date would be 527 BC.

Ezekiel has more to say about the timing of his exile, and shows us how it relates to the pre-exile Jubilee cycles. Ezekiel 40:1 says, *“In the twenty-fifth year of our exile, at the beginning of the year, on the tenth of the month, in the fourteenth year after the fall of the city—on that very day the hand of the LORD was upon me and he took me there.” *From his reference to the beginning of the year as the tenth of the month, we know that this was a Jubilee year – and that this Jubilee year happened in the 25th year of Ezekiel’s exile, and the 14th year after Jerusalem and the Temple were destroyed. So although Jeremiah’s 70 years would be counted from one of the starting points for the exile, it’s clear that the Jubilees would not be. If we were to take Ezekiel’s exile as the starting point for the 70 years, then the gap from the Jubilee year being described, up to the end of the 70 years when they could start fresh with a new Jubilee count, would have to be about 25 years *less* than 70 years.

To get a feel for what the possibilities are for the actual length of the gap, lets put together a timeline from the information that we have so far:

- fall 605 BC to fall 604 BC – 1st year of Daniel’s exile
- fall 604 BC to fall 603 BC – 2nd year of Daniel’s exile
- fall 603 BC to fall 602 BC – 3rd year of Daniel’s exile
- fall 602 BC to fall 601 BC – 4th year of Daniel’s exile
- fall 601 BC to fall 600 BC – 5th year of Daniel’s exile
- fall 600 BC to fall 599 BC – 6th year of Daniel’s exile
- fall 599 BC to fall 598 BC – 7th year of Daniel’s exile
- fall 598 BC to fall 597 BC – 8th year of Daniel’s exile; 1st year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 597 BC to fall 596 BC – 9th year of Daniel’s exile; 2nd year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 596 BC to fall 595 BC – 10th year of Daniel’s exile; 3rd year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 595 BC to fall 594 BC – 11th year of Daniel’s exile; 4th year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 594 BC to fall 593 BC – 12th year of Daniel’s exile; 5th year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 593 BC to fall 592 BC – 13th year of Daniel’s exile; 6th year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 592 BC to fall 591 BC – 14th year of Daniel’s exile; 7th year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 591 BC to fall 590 BC – 15th year of Daniel’s exile; 8th year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 590 BC to fall 589 BC – 16th year of Daniel’s exile; 9th year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 589 BC to fall 588 BC – 17th year of Daniel’s exile; 10th year of Ezekiel’s exile
- fall 588 BC to fall 587 BC – 18th year of Daniel’s exile; 11th year of Ezekiel’s exile; the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 587 BC to fall 586 BC – 19th year of Daniel’s exile; 12th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 1st year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 586 BC to fall 585 BC – 20th year of Daniel’s exile; 13th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 2nd year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 585 BC to fall 584 BC – 21st year of Daniel’s exile; 14th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 3rd year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 584 BC to fall 583 BC – 22nd year of Daniel’s exile; 15th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 4th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 583 BC to fall 582 BC – 23rd year of Daniel’s exile; 16th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 5th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 582 BC to fall 581 BC – 24th year of Daniel’s exile; 17th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 6th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 581 BC to fall 580 BC – 25th year of Daniel’s exile; 18th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 7th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 580 BC to fall 579 BC – 26th year of Daniel’s exile; 19th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 8th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 579 BC to fall 578 BC – 27th year of Daniel’s exile; 20th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 9th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 578 BC to fall 577 BC – 28th year of Daniel’s exile; 21st year of Ezekiel’s exile; 10th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 577 BC to fall 576 BC – 29th year of Daniel’s exile; 22nd year of Ezekiel’s exile; 11th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 576 BC to fall 575 BC – 30th year of Daniel’s exile; 23rd year of Ezekiel’s exile; 12th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 575 BC to fall 574 BC – 31st year of Daniel’s exile; 24th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 13th year after the fall of Jerusalem
- fall 574 BC to fall 573 BC – 32nd year of Daniel’s exile; 25th year of Ezekiel’s exile; 14th year after the fall of Jerusalem

with this year being a Jubilee year by the pre-exile count. If the length of 40 years for the gap in Jubilee counting is correct, this also gives us:

- fall 534 BC to fall 533 BC – year 1 of the new Jubilee count
- fall 525 BC to fall 524 BC – year 10 of the new Jubilee count
- fall 515 BC to fall 514 BC – year 20 of the new Jubilee count
- fall 505 BC to fall 504 BC – year 30 of the new Jubilee count
- fall 495 BC to fall 494 BC – year 40 of the new Jubilee count
- fall 485 BC to fall 484 BC – year 50, the first post-exile Jubilee

Now, we know that the fall of Babylon to Cyrus was in October of 539 BC, with his decree to let the exiles return to Jerusalem being in his first year – probably in his first full year, in 538/537 BC by spring-to-spring reckoning (from Finegan 1998, page 266, paragraph 454). It would have to be sometime after this that the new Jubilee count was begun. At the same time, it would also have to be after the 70-year time span had been completed – and depending on which of the three starting points is meant to be followed, this would either be after 535 BC, or after 527 BC, or after 517 BC.

Looking at the options, this choice is easy. The only one that’s near the fall of Babylon to Cyrus is the first one, 535 BC, counting the 70 years from the very first exile, the exile of Daniel to Babylon in 605 BC. So the exiles returned from Babylon sometime after the spring of 538 BC, and the full 70 years were completed by the summer of 535 BC. The fall of 535 BC would thus be the earliest reasonable date for the counting of years for Sabbatical and Jubilee purposes to have been restarted, with this giving us a gap length of 39 years. The proposed gap length of 40 years is thus quite plausible, requiring there to have been a delay of just one more year, restarting the count in the fall of 534 BC.

### Addendum –

Not sure how important this is or where it fits into the above discussion – but if we settle on 40 years as the length of the break in the counting of years for Jubilees, this produces the following +1 linkages across the break:

- Mars/Regulus series 3, -3103, to Mars/Regulus series 4, 858, – at years 19 and 20 of the Jubilee cycle, (3960 – 40)/49 = 80 Jubilees
- Mars/Regulus series 3, -2582, to Mars/Regulus series 4, 1379, – at years 1 and 2 of the Jubilee cycle, (3960 – 40)/49 = 80 Jubilees
- Mars/Regulus series 3, -1493, to Mars/Regulus series 4, 2468, – at years 12 and 13 of the Jubilee cycle, (3960 – 40)/49 = 80 Jubilees
- Mars/Regulus series 3, -357, to Mars/Regulus series 4, 1947, – at years 30 and 31 of the Jubilee cycle, 2303/49 = 47 Jubilees